Lake Pamvotida (ancient name Pamvotis), also known as Lake of Ioannina, is at an altitude of 470 meters above the sea level. It has a length of about 7.9 kilometers, a width of 1.5 to 5.4 kilometers, an average depth of 4-5 meters, a maximum depth of 11 meters and a surface of 19.4 square kilometers. It is surrounded by the Mitsikeli Mountains and Tomaros (or Olitsikas) and is formed by the waters of three main springs (Drabadova, Sentenikos and Krya), which flow into the foothills of Mitsikeli. It is associated with the legends of Kira-Frosini and Durachan.
In the middle of the lake is a small islet, on which the homonymous settlement is built, which today has 347 inhabitants according to the 2001 census. On the islet there is the monastery of St. Panteleimon, where in 1822 Ali Pasha was assassinated.
The Cave of Perama is geologically linked to the presence and evolution of Lake Pamvotida. It dates back to about 1,500,000 years and is part of a riverbed when the waters of Lake Pamvotida covered the entire basin of the city of Ioannina and Gorica hill was an islet.
The earliest modern accounts of the existence of the Cave date back to World War II, when Perama residents found refuge during the bombings.
During World War II, and after its end, it was first photographed by Konstantinos Kasvikis, a gymnast and amateur speleologist. The systematic exploration and mapping was started by Ioannis and Anna Petrochilos (founders of the Hellenic Speleological Society).
The Cave of Perama belongs to limestone caves and has 19 species of stalactites and stalagmites, an extremely large number. It consists of many successive halls and corridors adorned with stalactites, stalagmites, curtains and impressive columns in magnificent complexes. In 1956 fossilized teeth and bones of the cave bear were found. It occupies an area of 14,800 sq.m. and the tourist route is a total of 1,100 meters. The indoor temperature is 18°C, with humidity reaching 100%.